Cuando uno comienza a leer comics puede resultar un tanto confuso saber que leer y la cronología que le corresponde a cierto personaje. Esta confusión se debe en parte a lo que se llaman realidades, tierras o universos paralelos, básicamente esto es una estrategia que debería facilitar la lectura y continuidad de las historias, pero para alguien que no tiene idea de la existencia de estas puede llegar a complicar las cosas mucho más.

La implementación del multiverso o tierras se debe a que Marvel (y prácticamente cualquier compañía de comics) está compuesta por muchos autores, editores, títulos, eventos; en ocasiones a algún autor se le ocurre alguna idea que no podría conectar con otras historias y para esto se crean realidades alternas en las cuales la historia puede ocurrir. Muchas veces estás historias pueden llegar a aparecer solamente en un comic, o en otras ocasiones pueden tener múltiples números y hasta títulos. A pesar de que esto se orienta más a los comics también aplica con las películas, series de televisión y videojuegos.

Bueno si ya quedo claro para lo que sirven, entonces ¿Cómo los podemos identificar?: Para referirse a las diferentes realidades se utiliza la palabra “Tierra” y es seguida por un guión y un número. Por ejemplo: la dimensión principal es conocida como “Tierra-616”, el Universo Cinemático de Marvel es la “Tierra-199999” y nuestra realidad es llamada “Tierra-1218”.

Lo que diferencia a una tierra de otra generalmente es el resultado de un acontecimiento. Gran parte de ellas han surgido por los comics llamados “What if?”, estos  plantean resultados diferentes de las diferentes historias que ocurren en la Tierra-616: ¿Qué pasaría si Spider-man hubiera salvado a Gwen Stacy?, ¿Qué pasaría si Daredevil hubiera salvado a Elektra?, ¿Qué pasaría si la familia de Punisher no hubiera muerto en Central Park?, cada una de estas historias ocurre en una tierra diferente

Pero estos comics no son los únicos que generan nuevos universos, hay historias que toman la mitología de un héroe y la usan para ponerlo en algún escenario que uno no pudiera haber imaginado como “Old man Logan”, también en ocasiones se crean tierras que en teoría son el futuro de la Tierra-616 como en “Spider-man 2099” o el arco “Days of the future past” de X-Men , tierras con los personajes ambientados en otras épocas: Marvel Noir (situada en los años 40) y Marvel 1602 (situada en ese año), o tierras con personajes totalmente nuevos que tienen semejanzas con algún personaje ya conocido: prácticamente toda la serie de “Edge of Spider-verse”.


Otra tierra que surgió y es la segunda más importante se creo precisamente en cuanto Marvel se percató de lo difícil que es comenzar a leer comics y ponerse al corriente con los cuarenta años de historias anteriores, para atraer nuevos lectores en el año 2000 Marvel creó una tierra nueva que poseía muchas similitudes con la Tierra-616, pero situada completamente en la época actual, tomando en cuenta la situación global, estos comics salieron con el prefijo “Ultimate” y ocurren en la “Tierra-1610”, la cual tomó mucha relevancia hasta el final de estas historias en 2015 con el evento “Secret Wars”, el cual trajo consigo muchos cambios prácticamente mezclando la “Tierra-1610” con la “Tierra-616”, y algo llamado “All new all different marvel”.

El evento anterior hace que en la actualidad sea más sencillo tomar un comic de Marvel sin temer a las múltiples tierras antes mencionadas, ya que casi todos ocurren en la misma realidad lo cual evita confusiones para lectores nuevos, siempre y cuando se mantengan en los comics actuales, si no habría que considerar todo lo anterior.

Cuando se trata de películas, series y videojuegos todo resulta más sencillo, ya que realmente con seguir el orden de las películas o series es suficiente, y por lo general lo videojuegos se encuentran en una tierra existente solo para ellos.

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